Although it appears on criteria sheets, many students never really understand the term metalanguage. Strangely, it is something that is rarely addressed in classrooms. While the word may be foreign to you, rest assured that metalanguage is not an entirely new concept you have to learn. How come? – because you have been unknowingly using metalanguage since the very beginning of high school.

Metalanguage is language that describes language. The simplest way to explain this is to focus on part 3 of the English exam – Language Analysis. In Language Analysis, we look at the author’s writing and label particular phrases with persuasive techniques such as: symbolism, imagery or personification. Through our description of the way an author writes (via the words ‘symbolism’, ‘imagery’ or ‘personification’), we have effectively used language that describes language.

Now, if we look at the bigger picture, our analysis of an author’s language can be applied to Text Response, and even Writing in Context. Some popular uses of metalanguage are shown below:


  • Tone
  • Narrator
  • Grammar and punctuation
  • Characterisation

For example: Achilles is characterised as a feutus, for his position is ‘chin down, shoulders hunched’ as though he is inside a womb. (Ransom, David Malouf)


  • Mise-en-scene
  • Camera angles
  • Music
  • Lighting

For example: When Terry leaves Friendly’s bar, the thick fog symbolises his clouded moral judgement as he decides whether he should remain ‘D and D’, or become a ‘rat’. (On The Waterfront, Elia Kazan)


  • Stage direction
  • Soliloquy
  • Monologue
  • Prop

For example: The miniature set Zac creates is designed with a white backdrop, demonstrating his desire to wipe away reality since he ‘can’t stand real things.’ (Cosi, Louis Nowra)

As indicated earlier, you should be familiar with many, if not all the terms mentioned above. Take note that some metalanguage terms are specific to a writing form, such as camera angle for films. As you discuss themes or characters, you should try and weave metalanguage throughout your body paragraphs. The purpose of this criteria is to demonstrate your ability to understand how the author uses language to communicate his or her meaning. The key is to remember that the author’s words or phrases are always chosen with a particular intention – it is your job to investigate why the author has written a text in a particular way.

How can you go about developing the right terminology for your essays? Try some of the following and good luck!

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Lisa Tran

Lisa Tran

This blog post was written by Lisa, creator and head tutor at VCE Study Guides. Lisa graduated from Methodist Ladies' College in 2008 with a VCE English study score of 45 and is a qualified Pharmacist. Lisa offers private tuition and runs VCE Study Guides' popular and unique workshops, which are not like any lectures you've ever attended. She also offers English tips and VCE advice on her YouTube channel: Lisa's Study Guides. To find out more, click here.

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